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Waste management survey Kibbutz Ketora 1996 FINAL REPORT



 Waste Management Survey Kibbutz Ketora      1996


aste management is one of the major environmental challenges of the 1990’s and certainly a vital goal for the next millennia. The 4 pillars of  waste management  — Source reduction, Reuse, Recycling and Recovery  – are the best available tools at present in order to meet the future challenges.

  1. Wherever possible, waste reduction is the preferred option.  It is best to produce as little waste as possible.  It is important to distinguish between waste reduction and source reduction for the purpose of this survey and report. ”Waste reduction”  includes any action that reduces the amount of toxicity of municipal / regional solid waste prior to disposal in a landfill or incinerator. For example waste reduction can include making packaging more recyclable or compostable.  “Source reduction”  is construed more narrowly and refers to measures that reduce the weight, volume or toxicity of products and packaging prior to their use.  Source reduction reduces both the environmental effects of raw material extraction and manufacturing and the amount of material entering the waste stream. This is why Source reduction is the  preferred option in the waste management hierarchy.

 2. If waste is produced, every effort should be made to reuse it, if it is at all practicable.

 3. Recycling is the third option in the waste management hierarchy. Although recycling does help to conserve resources and reduce wastes, it is important to remember that there are economical and environmental costs associated with waste collection and the recycling processes. For this reason, recycling should really only be considered for waste that cannot be reduced or reused.

 4. Finally, it may be possible to recover materials or energy from waste which can not be reduced, reused or recycled. Opportunities to reduce and reuse waste abound.  Practicing  reduction and reuse can be as simple as changing household habits or as complex as altering industrial processes.


he aim of this survey is to estimate the present situation of  waste management ability on kibbutz Ketora.  Additional goals were , firstly,  maximum reduction in the use of materials and the outcome of waste.  Secondly, recommending options and alternatives to the present problems and thirdly,  to begin a momentum of change in the prevailing attitudes towards waste management and initiate  programs and plans as seen through “green” environmental eyes. This survey does not replace  sound planning that should be carried out and that should include all the parties involved in the Kibbutz.

             This research started as an internship carried out by David Sugarman (B.Sc. Soil, Water and Environment), at the Arava Institute of Environmental Studies, during the fall semester of 1996, and then developed into a more comprehensive project including research, interviews, data collection and analysis.   The primary report was presented at a joint meeting with the head of the Arava Institute and  the general secretary of the Kibbutz at  the end of December 1996.

             I shall not describe here the  working order of the Kibbutz, but I wish to add that it was not a trivial matter to collect all the necessary data since willingness to cooperate and provide answers to issues and questions presented to members, met with everything from  approval and highly positive attitudes  to partial  enthusiasm, ending with some unwillingness to meet the researcher for discussion  and cooperation.    Attending Kibbutz committee meetings and analyzing the process of decision making is a source for further research and analysis, since there is a vital necessity  for change on the different levels of the decision making  process.

             A sociological analysis of the  members' attitudes towards environmental issues  can add to a broader understanding of this issue and in certain ways facilitate  the ability of  the kibbutz in addressing the various environmental problems.

            In this survey I shall present and discuss the results of the interviews, data analysis and all other  aspects of the research project according to the various work branches in the Kibbutz.  Following each section we will state the environmental problems concerned and the available suggested solutions .   Some branches are presented in detail and some are not.  The reason for this  being a  combination  of several influencing factors, inter alia, insufficient time and  unavailability of  suitable  modern technology and manpower.

The following are the kibbutz branches:

                                                # Agricultural packing house

                                                # Dairy

                                                # Agricultural fields — “Gan yarak."

                                                # Kitchen & supplies

                                                # Date plantations

                                                # Sand  / cement factory

                                                # Garage

                                                # “Shitim” settlement

                                                # The Water issue

                                                # Pesticides

                                                # Arava road noise emission

             A major issue that surfaced in the course of the research project was the lack of knowledge and unavailability  of useful and productive data. Therefore at the end of the paper we have attached is a list of  companies in Israel that deal with different environmental problems.

 This paper is presented to the Kibbutz. The research was carried out objectively and  was sponsored by no-one.  I respectfully submit it in the hope that it will enable the Kibbutz and its members to benefit environmentally and economically. The Kibbutz and its members have the ability to influence their own lives and to influence neighboring Kibbutzim to act in a  similar manner  and thus improve, environmentally, a much wider region  For example, by collecting enough paper so the relevant company can come and collect the paper waste once it is economically viable. It is important to bear in mind that this region is very dry and  therefore allows a long period of time for dry waste storage.

             The environmental aims mentioned before demand  sound planning in order to permit an effective and simple implementation system. The following are a few points and aspects that we recommended for consideration whilst planning a new system :



  • What waste products are we willing to separate at disposal ?
  • Out of the previous items, which shall we dispose of immediately ? { Toxic, un-compostable organic waste  – dairy, meat}, and  which will be collected at pre-planned places on the Kibbutz, until such time as it will be viable for a company to come and collect the waste.  {Building waste, metal, plastic, wood, paper, etc…}
  • What technical solutions can we produce to facilitate these procedures { Separate garbage bins, water systems, shredding machines, etc…..}.
  • What is the estimated amount of waste, from each substance that will be collected during a certain period of time {Day, month, year}

             Influence on  Ecological Systems

 Which of the waste collecting facilities  / machinery  are bound to harm the environment ?


 Strict behavior and methods of work that will meet the requirements of environmental law,  particularly matters concerning :

                        Air pollution [field fires, cement plant]

                        Pollution  of soil and ground water ( from which we drink and irrigate) resulting from  the   incorrect use of pesticides and fertilizers.

  • Monitoring and management of waste separation, its disposal and primary treatment.

             Social & Economical

 Cost of treatment at the different stages [equipment, work force, working days].

  • Environmental benefit — To what extant does the Kibbutz intend to implement the issue of the “Green Kibbutz”, and even become a leading role model.
  • Economical benefit — less waste to be disposed of.   Collected waste  paid for or taken free of charge by various companies.

 The Kibbutz Work Branches

 Agriculture Packing House


arvest seasons of  the agricultural fields dominate the work at the plant.  Autumn brings the major Kibbutz crop of  melons. Winter presents the tomatoes and  onions and  spring produces the early watermelons.  Summer leaves the packing plant  empty.

Waste Materials :

                        Nylon -10 Kg per day of work.

                        Cartons — 15 packing boxes per working day.

                        Wood — 1 packing plate per two days of work.

Water :

            Major source — water enters at the salinity of 600 mg CL/liter

            Minor source — water enters at the salinity of 300 mg CL/liter

    The water is used for the different processes in the plant. The less saline water is used for washing treatment at a certain period of processing. The plant (floor, machines etc..) is washed once a day during the working seasons. The emission of all of the water contains salinity that does not exceed 600 mg CL, and very little organic matter (fruit residues and Donag coating wax). Then the water is pumped upwards to the Kibbutz water system.

Conclusion :

 1. Water system :

                        A] Is the pumping of water up to the kibbutz system a necessity ?

                            Instead, could it continue its flow down to other fields (dates) ?

                        B] The Donag wax coating that is washed out with the water  should be   presented to the regional  health or agricultural officials to be approved as   part of the irrigation water.

2.Waste disposal  – a proper waste disposal method should be posed, separating wood,   paper , plastic and  cardboard,


 Waste Materials

                         Manure – every few months delivered to the fields for agricultural use  through composting.

                        Oil – from the different machines

                        Chlorine – from the cleaning system

                        Phosphoric acid – from the cleaning system

                        Cardboard packing


   Sweet  water is used for the purposes of drinking, washing and cooling.

 Conclusion :

 1. A continuing survey must be done to locate alternative materials for the cleaning


2. It is recommended to search for a different method of cooling the cows (more saline water

    because they are in any event  washed with sweet water afterwards.)   In addition a search

    should be conducted for   a different soap or other less environmentally   harmful


 Agricultural Fields – “ Gan Yarak “


he agricultural fields are one of the most important means of income on the kibbutz, especially the melon plantations. They are all  treated with pesticides according to the suggestions of the regional instructor from the Department of Plant Protection at the Ministry of Agriculture, and according to the decisions of the field managers.

            Presented during the data collection were the solutions and guidance by the instructor and these were assumed to be the  easiest , the cheapest  and quickest means  to apply  pesticides to the fields.  It is  important to pay attention to the fact that no alternatives were presented and that the goal of cheap, easy and quick is not necessarily the best, the more correct and more important,  the economically viable and profitable way to do things.

 Environmental Hazards

                                        Pesticides : Methyl-Bromide to counteract  the damage caused by the                            fungus of  Pytium and Fuzarium.   DDT sprayed against he Sand Fly.


Waste Materials

                        Plastic cover [used for Methyl Bromide spraying] – 300 Dunam annually.

                        Drip irrigation – replaced every few years. Pipes are sold for plastic recycling.

                        Manure – compostised and used as a fertilizing method.


 1. Long period of  time for the composting preparation.

2. Plant growth slowing down and even stopping  in the middle of the season –  Head of field

    works suggests it might be a salinity problem.


 1. The issues of salinity (soil, irrigation water, fertilizers use) must and can be analyzed with

    the  present availability of experts on the kibbutz and a research project could be run by

    the Arava  Institute.

2. IPM methods must be implemented in order to decrease the use of pesticides. In addition,

    the manner of control on the issue of pesticide usage must follow the full regulations and

    orders of  each chemical  manufacturers' instructions as well as that of   the Department of

    Plant Protection at the Ministry of Agriculture.

3. The issue of pesticides warrants a deeper and better analysis than is being done at

     present.   The following items should be given due consideration:

¨    What are the different pests, diseases  and weeds that appear in the region ? .

¨    What are the different IPM methods that can be used ? (monitoring and decision making process).

¨    After searching the non-chemical IPM methods and coming up with no other alternatives, a list of the various pesticides for each crop  should be presented.

¨    Listing, for each different crop, in a comparable table, the costs of the pesticides and labor for each different chemical and method of application. This can produce a better means of evaluating and assessing the policy of applying the pesticides.

¨    Taking into consideration the total costs of each crop might present a different list of preferences for the policy of selecting  crops for  future seasons.

¨    A linear programming method was presented to the accounting office at the kibbutz. It is a simple method that allows a comparison of  two different subjects, where in each subject all the necessary parameters are presented. The result is a graph that presents a line indicating on what terms each subject is economically viable.

                       Kitchen / Supplies


ull  data was not available thereby preventing a broader spectrum  of data collecting and therefore resulting in a limited analysis.  (No data from  the                      supplies dept.)

 Waste Materials

                              6-8 bags of  hand cleansing paper.

                        Four carton boxes per week.

                        Thirty Kg of waste from the kitchen per meal.

                        Thirty  Kg of waste from the diningroom per meal.

                        Unknown amount  of plastics, cans, etc…..


 1. The paper from the hand cleaning device can be used for  A] paper collection .B] compost.

    Available substances are towel cleaning or hot air (standards are 2400 W)  devices.

    The present situation of collection in plastic bags is an  unwelcome phenomena.

2. Separation of different materials. The kitchen and the diningroom are classic places for

    separation of the different products used in the process of  the various meal preparations.

    plastics, paper, cans from different substances, glass, metals, chemicals and the vast

    amount of different organic matter that should be separated into the kind that is

    viable for the process of composting. It requires a few minutes of work  for the kitchen

    staff  and a few seconds of delay for the dining attendants.

3. Collection of the organic material aimed for  composting should be assigned to one or

    two  workers who 3 times a day need to collect the organic waste bins from the kitchen

    and deliver them to the composting site. This assignment should not take more than one

    half of an hour for each meal.

4. Purchase of the different products by the supplies dept.  should aim to meet, as far as

    possible,  the requirements of  modern environmental products available on the market,

    and thus increase the consumption and demand for the “green” products.



he Date plantations are irrigated with saline water. The pesticides are used  as little as possible and are required   to  avoid the loss of the crop. The dry organic waste is used, very successfully, as a  soil cover in order to  avoid  growth of weeds, though there are weeds that are treated by means of using herbivores. Previous experiments of soil cover by cardboard proved to be insufficient and caused other problems, such as  the appearance of different pests.


               The herbivores are fenced within the plantations. The cost of the fencing is high and the fence itself  makes it difficult  to enter the field.


                    A suggestion was made by one of the students to bring the kibbutz camels to the date plantations and feed them the weeds around the  trees. The correct  manner of harnessing  the camels should be worked out.  This method allows a free approach to the trees and  reduces expense on fencing.



he garage produces large amounts of waste materials. Some of these are being reused by the garage manager, but some goes to waste as in  other places on the kibbutz (paper , plastic, metals etc…) . The separation of waste is therefore needed as in all  other kibbutz branches.

            On the issue of water it is suggested that the floor  be washed with saline water and not sweet water. Precautions must be taken to avoid corrosion of  metals due to the salts.   The issue of the wasted oil is complex and  is being dealt with  on a worldwide basis. It is possible under certain conditions to reuse  oil as oil for the heating systems, preferably in large public spaces and not in small ones.   Apart from the Israeli regulations on toxic waste disposal no other regulations and alternatives were found . Therefore   I  would like to present  an example from the USA for  used oil recycling. The American regulations allow used oil to be burned in space heaters of less than 500,000 Btu/hr capacity if combustion products are vented outside (heating hangars etc…). Also it may be blended back into the diesel fuel stock for vehicles or motors operated by the generator. Amt of the used oil per regulation at 40 CFR 279. At 1:1000 to 1:1500, it will use up the oil as fast as generated in many operations and, if filtered a little, does not appear to negatively affect performance.

             Since the kibbutz owns the fuel station it is advisable to consult with the oil company with which the station works on the different methods of reuse and disposal of the oil.

 It might be concluded that the present solution of sending the oil to Ramat Hovav is, in the meantime,  the best possible  one.

Shitim Settlement


ince Shitim settlement was handed over to the kibbutz, it seems that no broad scale future plans were made. Maintenance is being done constantly  and minor  projects  for the future are being considered. The policy of the kibbutz concerning the settlement must be established prior to a broad scale plan. The maintenance work done must aim to fit any kind of plan in the future, meaning  that only vital work must be done in order to avoid spending unnecessary money.

            Whether the Arava Institute will move over to the settlement or not,  there are a few subjects that should be considered whilst planning future actions.  The following is a list of points for debate :

1st)Irrigation system. Needs to be uncovered completely and replaced partly. The present situation is a disorganized maze of pipes that  defied any attempt  to reveal the planning system ,  and therefor e no additional  planning was possible during the survey preparation.

2nd)Asbestos cover in the main kitchen / diningroom.  Should  be replaced or destroyed promptly.  It is my belief that the walls contain asbestos too.  This must be checked soon, or else destroy  the building. The other rooms must be examined  due to the fact that it is not clear whether the walls in the rooms contain asbestos as well.

3rd)Light. The viability of self lighting solar lighting poles should be considered.   In addition  a self lighting system that lights according to change in movement {גלאי נפח} is an important item for saving electricity and as an alarm for unwelcome intruders.

4th)Energy. It is my opinion that air conditioning could be replaced with hanging coolers and water  / oil based heating systems. The economic viability must be examined, though the environmental impact is quite obvious – less electrical consumption.

5th)Environmental planning. The various buildings should be painted with desert colors in order to match the regional tone in colors.

6th)Plants. A new planting policy should be formed in order to create a better opportunity for growing desert oriented plants. For example it advisable to limit the grass layout in order to save the use of sweet fresh water.  The diversity of desert species is immense and provides almost an infinite number of plants for domestic and commercial purposes and thus gain some profit as well.  A  Botanical garden can be build  both for research and as a commercial (tourist) attraction.

7th)Composting. This is a viable method that can greatly benefit  the various plants.




1. The kibbutz gardens. It is suggested  that the kibbutz  plant more desert plants and decrease the use of high consumption  sweet water plants.  Irrigation of these plants was often carried out  at midday.   It is advisable to irrigate during the very early morning hours,

    unless there are other considerations that the survey  was not aware of .

2. Arava road. It is advisable to consider methods of decreasing the amount of noise

    that  the Arava road is creating. One option is to plant trees alongside the road, 1 Km from each side of   the Ketora Junction. The trees can be various desert trees, and saline water could be used  in order to irrigate them.  A second  choice could be acoustic walls such as those along  the Ayalon highway.  This  could be done through proving  by legal means  that the Arava road is causing noise above   the permitted regulations.



t appears that the water consumption in the kibbutz has decreased slowly during the last few years. However, the method of dividing the water portions and the irrigation policy seem to be unclear:  firstly, the variation in water consumption for different years for the same crop / working branch, and secondly,  the  dissimilarity in the irrigation policy from one season to another.  For example, in the major growing crops, such as the melons, dry onion and the water melons,  the total water consumption varies in  amount for  the years and even for the growing seasons.  In addition if we  compare the equivalent months in each year,  the difference  is often large.   If we take into consideration that there were influencing parameters, such as heat and an increase or decrease in the land devoted to each crop, then it is unclear  why there are large differences in the irrigation policy  within the season, and in comparison with similar seasons, where the length of growth  differ. It is understood that the dry onion grows for 4 months and tomato for 2-3 months ,  whereas in the water profile the irrigation water usage presents a larger number of months. Taking into consideration that the seasons were repeated,  it is therefore unclear why the water consumption does not repeat itself during the repeated season. The melons grew from 176.7 10exp6 liter in 1993, to 237 10exp6 l in 1995. The change within the season is more complex to analyze and understand but presents an unclear irrigation policy,.  Nevertheless it is important to determine a uniform and sound irrigation policy.



he possibility of wind turbines was analyzed in this region by kibbutz Lotan and  proved to be economically non-viable. A further inquiry with other wind turbine users has presented little data but the general attitude presented by them was a negative one due to technological difficulties. The only viable one is situated on the Golan heights and has proven to be feasible.

 Waste Management Suggestions


¨    Photocopy documents on both sides of the paper

¨    Reuse envelopes

¨    Use rechargeable batteries, and rechargeable toner cartridges for photocopiers and laser printers, where warranties permit.

¨    Rent rather than purchase items that will be used a few times

¨    Use the back of used paper for notes and drafts.

¨    Review inventory and correspondence procedures to reduce waste

¨    Investigate the potential of electronic mail system in order to reduce paper use.

Reuse Household Items – from A to Z



any household articles can be reused rather than discarded. If you don't want to reuse items in any of the ways described here, try contacting your local school, preschool, daycare, community centre, or recreation centre. Teachers and craft instructors are often looking for household items for art projects.

Aluminum pie plates

 #  Use a pie plate for baking and reheating food.

#  Use aluminum pie plates as freezer containers. Fill with baked goods, berries, or other

    foods, then wrap and freeze.

#  Use a pie plate to cover a fresh pie in a similar-sized plate to make for easier transport.

Bath Mats

#  Use a worn out bath mat that has lost its non-skid backing to make a floor mop: fold the

    mat (fluffy side out) to fit your mop handle and slip it into place. The mop can be washed

    in the washing machine after use.


#  Make a cat or dog collar with a discarded belt or one bought at a thrift sale. Cut to size and

    add a metal ring to the buckle to attach identification and license tags.


Bottle caps

# Paint bottle caps red and black and use them to replace missing checkers.


Carpet remnants

# Use carpet scraps to give your feet extra insulation from the cold. Line boots or rubbers by

    tracing your foot on a piece of  paper to make a pattern, then use the outline to cut the

    carpeting to fit. This works well for children's snow boots.

Ceramic tile

# Give new life to an old table by covering the top with used ceramic tiles and painting the


# Use single tiles to make trivets or hot plates. Frame tiles with wood scraps or glue felt

    pieces to the bottom of the tile to prevent scratching.

Chipped coffee mugs

# Use a chipped or cracked coffee mug to make small windowsill-size planters.

# Put an old mug near your phone to hold pens and pencils for taking messages.

Coffee filters

# Buy a reusable metal or cloth coffee filter instead of using paper filters.


#  Run your dull razor blade through a cork to get a few more shaves out of it.

#  Glue wine corks onto wood backing and make your own cork board.

#  Use corks as fish hook holders.

Detergent squeeze bottles

#  Use a detergent squeeze bottle to water plants, fill a steam iron, or spot clean the floor.

#  Store a water-filled squeeze bottle in the car and use it to clean the windshield when the

     wiper fluid is used up or to clean  hands after changing a flat.


# Donate old eyeglasses to one of the organizations listed under "Charities and Service

    Organizations" in the Resource  Directory.


Fancy doilies

# Use old-fashioned lace doilies that once protected the backs and arms of good chairs as

    placemats and table runners. Use them alone or with a solid coloured protective mat of

    plastic or cloth.

# Frame a fancy doily and use it to decorate a wall.

# Make a gift bag by threading a ribbon through the edge of a doily and drawing it tight to

    close the bag.

# Line a basket with a doily.


Glass jars

# Give gifts of candies, cookies, or jam in decorated jars.

# Make bookends or lamps by filling two matched jars with coloured water (just add a few

   drops  of food colouring) or layers of coloured sand or shells. Glue pieces of felt or rubber

   from a pair  of old rubber gloves to the base to prevent slipping.

# Store bulk grains, cereals, baking supplies, or spices in used jars.


# Decorate hangers with wool or fabric for gift giving.

# Take some hangers with you when you go camping for roasting wieners and


Ironing board covers

# Use less worn areas of a non-stick ironing board cover to make pot holders, barbecue

   mitts, or hot pads: cut out the shape  you need and cover the holder, mitt, or pad with

   scraps of material; quilt together on a sewing machine, then use bias tape to bind edges

   and add a loop.

Jars with shaker tops

# Use large jars with shakers tops to dispense baking or  washing soda when you clean the

    bathtub or sink.

# Use small jars for herbs and spices bought from bulk food stores.

Junk mail

# Reuse junk mail flyers and leaflets for art projects such as origami, collage or papier-

   mגche. But better yet, eliminate junk  mail by having your name removed from direct

   marketing mailing lists.

# Have organizations you belong to or donate money to remove you from the mailing lists

   they sell to other organizations.

Lemon/lime squeeze containers

# Pry open and fill with children's shampoo, oil and vinegar for picnic salads, or hand lotion

    to keep at the kitchen sink.

Lone earrings

# Use a lone earring as a scatter pin for a turtleneck sweater or on the lapel of a jacket.


Lunch kits and containers

# Pack your lunch in reusable containers (old yogurt containers, film canisters), and carry

    them in a reusable fabric bag or  plastic lunch kit.

# Use a reusable mug at work.

Memory machines

# Use your answering machine, a chalkboard, or an erasable felt pen board to record notes

   to yourself or instructions for your children. This will mean no more lost notes or wasted


Old cushions

# Use flat rectangular foam cushions as extra sleeping pads for visiting children, floor

    cushions for watching television,   exercise mats, or bed pillow props.



Mesh bags

# Fasten a large mesh bag over a gutter spout to keep leaves out.

# Convert a large mesh bag into a shopping bag (you can soak off the label in warm

   water first if you wish).

# Use a small mesh bag to make a pot scrubber and soap-saver: fold the bag into a square

   the size of your kitchen soap dish,  and fasten with one stitch in the middle.

# Put suet for the birds in a small mesh bag and hang the "feeder" from a tree branch outside

   your window.

# Make a gift bag by weaving wool or ribbon through the neck of a small or large mesh bag.

    Use scraps of ribbon or wool to create a design.


# Make new napkins from worn tablecloths.

# Use old napkins in your picnic basket or for dust rags.

# Use cloth napkins for meals instead of paper napkins.

Make gift boxes using old cards

1. Cut apart the two halves of the card. Trim .5 cm off one side and one end of  the back half

    of the card.

2. On the wrong side of each piece, draw diagonal lines between opposite corners with a

    ruler, to form a large X.

3. Fold in the two sides so they meet in the centre. Do the same with the two ends. Starting

    at each corner, cut along the diagonal lines to the new fold lines.

    Use the box for small gifts or certificates.

4. Fold each point A to the inside. Now fold flaps B over points A. Tuck in the, corners and

    glue if necessary. The back of the card, being smaller, forms the  bottom of the box.

Old greeting cards

# Use last year's Christmas cards to make Christmas gift tags and paper chains to decorate

   your home.

# Make a bookmark from an old card.

# Make gift boxes using old cards.

# Give cards you can't use to schools, daycare centres, and Brownie packs for craft projects.


Packing cardboard

# Try reusing the packing cardboard that comes with many new products. Use it to protect

   delicate items sent through the mail  or to make birthday cards.

# The cardboard that comes with new pantyhose can be used for recipe cards.

Party decorations

# Make party decorations using old greeting cards, fabric scraps, or strips of old posters and

    wallpaper. Share them with  friends and relatives.

# Make an ornament or something else that is reusable as a party favour. Home-made

    puzzles and home-baked treats make good children's party favours.

# Make party hats by sticking old giftwrap to heavy paper, and decorate with ribbons.

Plastic berry baskets

# Use plastic berry baskets to hold small items, such as baby bottle caps, that often end up

   on the bottom of the dishwasher. Put the items in one basket, place another basket upside

   down on top, then secure both baskets with a rubber band.

# Make a miniature moss baskets for flowers for your house, patio, or children's playhouse.

# Thread berry baskets with scraps of wool, ribbon, or fabric for gift containers.

Plastic trays

# Use plastic (polystyrene) trays from cookies and pastries when freezing portions of fresh

   meat or poultry. The meat pieces  will lie flat and slip into freezer bags more easily on

   trays and when the meat is defrosting the tray will hold the juices.

# Use plastic trays in place of paper plates for picnics.

# Put trays under baked goods you give as gifts or under plants to catch drips.

Polystyrene packing chips

# Reuse packing chips for mailing parcels.

# Return packing chips to the supplier for reuse.

# Find out if a local pottery or electronics store is looking for chips to reuse.

# Substitute air-popped popcorn for polystyrene packing chips.


# Use fabric scraps from old clothes to make quilted pot holders, placemats, vests, tote bags,

   and baby blankets.

Rental partyware

# Rent all the dishes and serving equipment needed for your special event instead of buying


Sand boxes

# Use the sand box your children have outgrown to make a vegetable or flower garden.


Scrap paper

# Cut up pieces of paper already used on one side and keep them in a box by the phone.

# Write out a grocery list on an old envelope and put redeemable coupons inside.

# Cover the address on an old envelope and use the envelope again.

Soap chips

# Make a soapy scrubber. Place small bits of leftover soap into a square of nylon netting, fold

    the netting so there are several  layers around the soap, then tuck in all the edges with

    heavy thread. Use for scrubbing collar stains or cleaning hands after gardening or painting.



Shopping bags

# Take a canvas shopping bag or plastic carrier bags when you go shopping.



Shower curtains

# Clean and disinfect an old shower curtain by soaking it for a couple of hours in a bathtub

   filled with warm water and vinegar.

# Use it as a tablecloth for the picnic table.

# Use an old shower curtain as a drop cloth when you are painting, or as a ground sheet

    under your tent or sleeping bags.

# Use a shower curtain to make an apron for really messy jobs.

Tablecloths and sheets

# Cut and hem pieces of old tablecloths and sheets to make lint-free kitchen towels.

# Cut large cloths and sheets into runner-sized pieces and add decorative trim.

# Use tablecloths and sheets to make curtains, placemats, tea cozies, serviettes, aprons, or

    laundry bags.

# Replace worn window shade fabric with a piece from an old plastic tablecloth. Cut the

    plastic to fit, hem the bottom, then staple and glue to the roller.

Telephone books

# Use last year's telephone book to make a reference file for the car. Cut out maps and

   frequently called numbers and put  them in a folder. Recycle the remainder of the book.

# Put last year's Yellow Pages in the car for reference.

Tie racks

# Use an old tie rack under your kitchen sink for holding brushes, spoons, utensils, towels,

    and cloths.


# Use old kitchen utensils in your picnic basket, or in the garden.

# Let children have old kitchen utensils for playing house or playing house or digging in dirt

    and sand.


# Return vases to florist shops or donate them to thrift stores.

# Buy vases at garage sales and fill with flowers for gift giving.

Vinyl Flooring

# Use vinyl flooring remnants to line your pots and pans cupboard or to protect a floor in a

    heavy  traffic area.


# Use old watch parts to make costume jewelry.

Yogurt Containers

# Cut the bottom out of a yogurt container and place it around delicate plants to protect them

    in the spring.

List of institutes dealing with various Environmental issues


he list below is a representative of those institutes that  are situated in the central and southern part of the country , apart from the big nationwide factories such as Amnir in Hadera and other companies that are not represented in the south.



All purposes :


1.Miterany center for Desert research , Sde Boker. 07-6565073

Cement  factories

1. The research center for quarry engineering.   The Technion  Institute Haifa  04-8293577

 Paper & Cardboard recycling

1. Amnir, Hadera. Tel : 06-349580, Fax 06-333104

2. Lavnir, Kiriat Gat.  Tel : 07-811263

3. Sagiv, Ofakim.  Tel : 07-922555

4. Tamam – Recycling enterprises, Ofakim. Tel : 07-9600078

Metal , Steel & Aluminum


1. Metek- Metal technology. Ramat Hovav. Tel : 07-6572333

2. Halom – Metal Recycling,, Ako. Tel : 04-9853802  Fax : 04-9853843

3. Ordan, Netanya. Tel : 09627477

4. Alotrem _ Aluminum recycling, Mishor Edumim. Tel : 02-352731.  Fax : 02352732.

Oil recycling


1. Masor-Schiffer  , used oil collection, Raanana. Tel : 09443534.  Fax : 09444054.

2. Dalkol, used oil collection. Lod. Tel : 177-022-7266,  08-9270886.  Fax : 089247072

Batteries & Cables

1. Volkan, Industrial zone Tefen. Tel : 04-9872205.   Fax : 049872672.


1. Hakurnass, Recycling lead bateries, metal waste, Solphur waste, Acidic waste.. Ashdod.

                        Tel : 08-8567741 .  Fax : 08-8567316


1. Rozenkrants, Tel-Aviv. Tel : 03-6821662, 6833553.  Fax : 03-6823685.


1. The company for  Environment. Beit – Ytshak. Tel : 09-882-6464  Fax : 09-8612646


1. Aviv. Tel – Aviv.  Tel : 03-5101391.

2. Amnir. Hadera.  Tel : 06-341989.  Fax : 06-349516.

3.Ardan. Migdal – Haemek. Tel : 06-441762.


1. Fenizia. Yerucham. Tel : 07-590251.

Toxic Waste

1. Tabib. Petach-Tikva. Tel :  03-9309670.Water consumption in the Melon field

(Qubic meter per year)

water consumption comparison in Kibbuts ketora mellon field
water consumption comparison in Kibbuts ketora mellon field

Monthly water consumption comparison in the mellon field

(Qubic meter per month)

From → Environment


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